Some time ago I suggested on meta that it should be possible to easily identify which question or answer (when applicable) awarded the badge. This request was met by an initial refusal, stating that the user should figure out himself why the badge was awarded. This quickly became a heated issue, as I was not the only one who wanted this feature implemented. At the time, the badge system was not designed for this.
I am happy to say that waffles (Sam Saffron) implemented the needed change, and now it is possible to view the questions/answers responsible for the badge! Just go to your profile page, and click on one of the badges. You’ll get a page with links to the answers or questions:
Thanks Jeff and Sam for implementing this feature, and thanks to everyone in the SO community for making this question award me the Great Question badge.